• A hysterosalpingography test or HSG is a diagnostic x-ray imaging procedure done to check if the fallopian tubes are patent (open) and if the interior of the uterine cavity is normal.
• This procedure is typically as part of investigations to determine the cause for infertility
• The HSG procedure does not detect ovarian abnormalities or to diagnose endometriosis, and it cannot identify uterine fibroids that are within the uterine wall or outside
• It is performed as an outpatient procedure and takes about 30 minutes to do. There is no need for general anesthesia
• It is usually done after the woman finishes her period but before her ovulation (typically the 10th day of the cycle). The test cannot be done if the woman is menstruating
• The test is usually performed either by the radiologist/gynecologist
ABOUT THE PROCEDURE
• The patient is woman is placed beneath a fluoroscope (an x-ray machine that can capture pictures)) on a table.
• The gynecologist examines the patient’s uterus and does an internal examination. The cervix is cleaned, and a device (cannula) is placed in the opening of the cervix.
• Through the cannula, the doctor fills the uterus with an iodine containing contrast dye which helps to visualize the tubes and the interior of the cavity.
• The contrast appears as white on the x-ray picture and demonstrates the outline of the uterus as the liquid flows through the uterus and the fallopian tubes.
• As the dye enters the tubes, it shows the length of the tubes and spills out of the other end if they are patent
• Abnormalities within the uterus can also be detected by observing the x-ray images on a screen, as the movement of dye is disrupted due to any pathology
• After the procedure, the woman can resume normal activities, although sexual intercourse must be avoided for a few days
• The images will be analyzed and interpreted by the radiologist and a detailed report sent to the gynecologist to discuss the results with the patient
• Pelvic infection
• Exposure to radiation from x-rays
• Allergy to iodine containing dye
• Spotting for a couple of days after HSG procedure
• Pregnancy (to inform the doctor if the patient thinks she might be pregnant)
• Active pelvic infection
• Known allergy to iodine containing dye
LIMITATIONS OF HSG
• HSG can only visualize the inside of the uterus and fallopian tubes. MRI scan or ultrasound is necessary to detect disease in the ovaries, external aspect of the uterus or in the uterine muscle layer, and other pelvic structures.
• It cannot identify infertility problems due to low sperm count or failure of the fertilized egg to implant in the uterus
HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY - FINAL MBBS REVISION
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- Full Name: Lakshmi Venkataraman
- Name of Your College/Medical School: SRMC&RI Porur Chennai
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